Cyclone-prone Areas in India
In the past few decades, India witnessed several natural calamities (flood, drought, cyclones, and earthquakes), of which floods have affected the country massively. Cyclones usually occur in the May-June and October-November time frame. Though the impacts of these cyclones can be felt throughout the entire Indian coast, the Eastern coast is more prone than to Western coast.
Wondering which states and districts are cyclone-prone areas in India? Take a look at the list of cyclone-prone states and districts in India, and you will get a clear idea.
North 24 Parganas
South 24 Parganas
List of All Cyclones That Hit Different Areas In India Till Now
1. Bhola Cyclone - 1970
2. Cyclone Amphan - 2020
Cyclone Amphan was the first tropical cyclone of the 2020 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. This cyclone developed in a low-pressure area situated 300 km east of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Reported fatalities of Cyclone Amphan numbered 128, covering countries such as India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.
3. Cyclone BOB 03 - 2002
A severe cyclonic storm hit West Bengal on 12th November 2002. Around 173 people died in this storm.
Factors Influencing Cyclones in West Bengal
- Geo-physical and topographical condition of the place.
- Low pressure created over the Bay of Bengal causes cyclones in the coastal parts and nearby cities in West Bengal.
Frequency of Cyclones in West Bengal
Preventive Measures Taken in West Bengal
- The Government has stressed strengthening weather forecasting systems using satellite images and computer methods.
- Further, they have extended to reach out to more people living in cyclone-prone areas through information media and television.
- They have set up a Disaster Management Bureau to efficiently conduct disaster management at both local and national levels.
- The State Government of West Bengal took all the necessary steps to evacuate people from the coastal areas.
- The State Government of West Bengal has opened control rooms to monitor situations.
4. Super Cyclonic Storm BOB 01 - 1990
The formation of Super Cyclonic storm BOB 01 occurred on 4th May 1990. This cyclone made landfall in Andhra Pradesh on 9th May 1990, which made its entry into the Category 3 tropical cyclone. Around 967 people were killed due to this cyclone, and it was considered the worst to affect South India in the pre-monsoon season.
5. Cyclone Pyarr - 2005
Cyclone Pyarr took the rare path from the southeast to the northeast in September in the Bay of Bengal and made landfall on Kalingapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. A total of 65 people were reported dead in Andhra and Odisha.
6. Cyclone Hudhud - 2014
The strong tropical cyclone Hudhud caused severe damage in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. The cyclone made landfall on 12th October 2014 with a wind speed of 215-240 kmph in Visakhapatnam. Apart from Visakhapatnam or Vizag, Odisha was also massively impacted. The casualties caused by strong winds and heavy rain took around 124 lives.
Factors Influencing Cyclone in Andhra Pradesh
- When the ocean temperature cools down in the month of October-November, it causes fluctuations in the upper air level, causing cyclones.
- Climate change is another factor that changes the pattern of cyclones making the tropical cyclones more intense.
- Increase in the temperature in the Bay of Bengal.
Frequency of Cyclones in Andhra Pradesh
Cyclones having moderate to severe intensity struck Andhra Pradesh every two to three years. Andhra Pradesh has witnessed nearly 60 cyclones since 1975.
Preventive Measures Taken in Andhra Pradesh
- The Central Government has made the National Disaster Response Force tackle the cyclonic situations and aftermath in the affected areas.
- The State Government has set up control rooms in cyclone-prone areas to monitor situations.
- Cyclone and flood centres were created and made usable for house evacuees.
- The State Government took necessary steps to gather correct information regarding the upcoming cyclones in Andhra Pradesh.
7. Odisha Cyclone - 1999
Odisha Cyclone occurred in 1999 was one of the deadliest recorded tropical cyclones (with a speed of 260-270 kmph) in the North Indian Ocean. The destructive cyclone made landfall on 29th October 1999. As per the reports, nearly 9887 people lost their lives due to this cyclone, and thousands of people lost their homes. As a result of this storm, diarrhoea and cholera spread among people.
8. Cyclone Phailin - 2013
9. Cyclone Fani - 2019
Cyclone Fani that occurred in May 2019 is considered an extremely severe cyclonic storm. The intensity of this storm was equivalent to the category-4 hurricane. Almost 40 people were reported dead as a result of this cyclone.
10. Cyclone Yaas - 2021
Cyclone Yaas made landfall in Odisha's Bhadrak district on 26th May, 2021. This storm affected parts of Odisha and West Bengal with a wind speed of 130-145 kmph. A total of 20 people were killed due to cyclone Yaas.
Factors Influencing Cyclones in Odisha
- Climate change has caused a rise in temperature, which made Odisha one of the cyclone-prone states in India, particularly on the east coast.
Frequency of Cyclones in Odisha
Preventive Measures Taken in Odisha
- The State Government of Odisha has emphasized tree pruning to reduce cyclonic effects.
- Further, they have stationed an emergency restoration system at several areas, including Balasore, Bhadrak to ensure continued electricity supply after the cyclone stops.
- The State Government has launched an evacuation system in the low lying and cyclone-prone areas in India.
11. Cyclonic Storm Nisha-2008
In December 2008, Cyclone storm Nisha made landfall over Cuddalore and damaged major parts of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. Around 200 people died in this storm. This storm ranked 10th wettest in the Indian Ocean basin.
12. Cyclone Phyan-2009
13. Cyclone Vardah-2016
Cyclone Vardah caused heavy rainfall on the Andaman Nicobar Islands, and after changing its course, i.e.crossing the eastern coast, it affected Kancheepuram, Chennai, and Visakhapatnam. This cyclone killed almost 38 people.
14. Cyclone Ochki-2017
Cyclone Ochki was one of the strongest cyclones of the North Indian Ocean cyclone season of 2017. The cyclone formed in the Arabian sea and affected both the mainland and coastal areas (Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat) of India. Nearly 245 people were killed in this storm.
Factors Influencing Cyclones in Tamil Nadu
The physiographic location of Sri Lanka causes most cyclones developed over the Bay of Bengal to be deflated towards the north. Subsequently, the north coast of Sri Lanka along with Indian states including Tamil Nadu are more prone to cyclones than the southern part.
Frequency of Cyclones in Tamil Nadu
Preventive Measures Taken in Tamil Nadu
- The Government has set up several relief camps and shifted people living in low-lying areas to these camps.
- Teams of the National Disaster Response Force are deployed during emergency situations.
Insurance Products People Living in Cyclone Hit Areas in India Should Buy
Home Insurance Policy: People living in cyclone-prone states in India must buy home insurance policies to protect their immovable assets from natural calamities. Under the home insurance policy, one can claim for the damage caused by natural disasters like a cyclone. You can buy a home insurance policy for both the structure and content of houses. The tenure of these policies depends on the type chosen. For instance, you can buy a home insurance policy for 1-30 years, for structure and content for 1-5 years, for content only for 1-5 years.
With this, we have reached the end of the discussion of cyclone-prone areas in India. Locate the area you live in, learn about the past cyclone history and buy a home insurance policy to protect your home.