Kidney stone treatment depends on the type and size of the stones.
1. Treatment for Small Stones
- Doctors initially ask patients to drink considerable water to pass stones through urine. It is one way to conduct kidney stone treatment without surgery.
- Doctors prescribe some medications (known as alpha-blockers) to pass urine with minimal pain.
However, if doctors diagnose a large stone, detect problems in urine flow, or find an infection, they may recommend surgery.
2. Treatment for Large Stones
Kidney stone surgeries include -
Shock Wave Lithotripsy- Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is one of the most common types of surgery to treat stones present in the uterus and kidney. In this kidney stone treatment, high-energy shock waves help break down large stones into smaller pieces. These then pass out of the body through the urine.
Laser Lithotripsy- In this kidney stone laser treatment, a laser is used to break the stones. After this treatment, the remaining parts exit the body when the patient urinates.
Ureteroscopy- Ureteroscopy refers to the process where a thin tube is inserted through the urinary tract to the location of the stone. Here, doctors break the stone into small parts and remove those through the tube. In ureteroscopy, surgeons do not make any incision in the body.
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy or Nephrolithotripsy- In Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or nephrolithotripsy, surgeons make a small incision in the patient's back to insert a nephroscope to make a pathway to the kidney. In nephrolithotomy, surgeons remove the stone using specialised tools. On the other hand, if surgeons first break the stone with these tools, the process is called Nephrolithotripsy.
Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Nephrolithotomy-In the case of large stones, surgeons opt for robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephrolithotomy. Here, surgeons make a small incision in the abdomen and insert surgical tools to open up the kidney and take out the stone. In this process, the surgical tools are controlled from a computer console in the operating room to ensure precision.