Vaccination for Babies in India

Centralised or State-Level Baby Vaccination

Which Are the Compulsory Vaccines for Babies in India?

The Universal Immunisation Program includes certain compulsory vaccines as a part of its programme. As mentioned before, there are multiple dosages and instances when to administer these vaccines.

BCG, OPV and Hep B are among the first vaccines needed for newborn babies.

Following them, the vaccines for 6-month old babies are DTP, HIB, Rotavirus, etc.

Below is a list of compulsory vaccines that every Indian infant should take.

 

Compulsory Vaccines

At Birth

Vaccine Name

Disease

Age and Dosage

BCG Vaccine for Tuberculosis

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is administered to prevent tuberculosis in infants, The vaccine causes swelling at the site of administration, It is considered a mandatory vaccine as TB is responsible for millions of deaths per year, BCG is a well-known newborn baby vaccination.

At birth or as early as possible till one year of age, The dosage is 0.1 ml (intradermal) and given in the upper left arm.

Oral Polio Vaccine

OPV is a compulsory vaccination for babies in India, Polio is a disease that causes paralysis in children, Poliovirus lives in the throat and intestinal tract of a person and spreads by contact with faeces, Some children who get polio do not feel any symptoms, and others get symptoms similar to the common cold. In comparison, others may feel muscle pain and can be paralysed within a week, There is no treatment for polio, and some children may die from it, There are two types of polio vaccine: OPV (live, weakened vaccine administered orally) and IPV (killed polio vaccine administered by injection)

Within the first 15 days of birth or at birth, Two drops at birth, Follow it up with doses at six weeks, ten weeks, and 14 weeks, If opting for IPV, the first dose should be given at 6 to 8 weeks, follow it up with Dose 2 at 10-16 weeks and Dose 3 at 14-24 weeks with a booster at 16-18 months.

Hepatitis B (Hep B)

Hepatitis B virus causes Hepatitis B, It is found in blood and body fluids, People are infected when these fluids transmit from person to person, Using needles previously used by others may also transfer the disease from one person to another, Children are immunised to prevent any infection in the case of exposure to HBV-positive material, This is among the first vaccines given to a baby

Ten mcg dose in 0.5ml suspension through an intramuscular route at birth followed by Dose 2 at 6-8 weeks and Dose 3 at six months

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Vaccines at 6 Weeks

Vaccine Name

Disease

Age and Dosage

DTP Vaccine

Healthcare professionals administer DTP (Diptheria, tetanus, pertussis) to children to prevent these three deadly diseases, Diptheria is a thick covering at the back of the throat. It causes breathing problems, paralysis and heart problems and even death in severe cases, Tetanus is a disease wherein the muscles of the body contract all over the body. It can lead to lockjaw and as a result of which the victim cannot swallow, Pertussis causes severe coughing spells that last for weeks. It can lead to pneumonia, brain damage, convulsions and even death, The first booster is usually given to children at the age of 6 weeks, 0.5ml of this vaccine is administered on the anterolateral mid-thigh left, Moreover, it is an intramuscular vaccine, In some cases, children who react adversely to the DTP shot should not get the second dose, Consult with a healthcare professional to know when to avoid the next dosage of DTP

At six weeks

Haemophilus Influenza B Virus (HIB)

It prevents brain and spine damage if causing meningitis, Hib bacteria can cause mild issues such as ear infections, bronchitis, or severe blood illnesses, Hib can also cause pneumonia, severe swelling of the throat, infections of the joints, bones, covering of the heart, and even death in extreme cases, There is only 1 dosage for this vaccine in the vaccination programme for babies in India

At six weeks, take Dose 1, followed Dose 2 at 10-16 weeks and Dose 3 at 14-24 weeks.

Rotavirus

Rotavirus is the cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children, The virus enters the body through the mouth, Rotavirus in young children can result in severe diarrhoea, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and metabolic acidosis, This microbe spreads when it comes in contact with stool

At 6 weeks, followed by dosage at 10 and 14 weeks.

Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine

TCV is the latest group of required vaccinations for babies in India, It is a conjugate of tetanus and typhoid vaccines, It prevents typhoid fever between 9 months to 16 years, WHO has qualified it, Typhoid fever, caused by salmonella typhi, causes 11 million cases in a year and more than 1 lakh deaths, It spreads through contaminated food or water, The efficacy of the conjugate is 82%

Infants from 3 to 6 months need this vaccine. It is administered in the thigh, and for children above 2 years, it is given in the deltoid muscle.

After 9 months

Vaccine Name

Disease

Age and Dosage

MMR Vaccine for Measles

MMR is for measles, mumps and rubella, Measles is an infectious disease, causing stomach problems, ear infections, convulsions, brain damage and pneumonia, Mumps can lead to meningitis and encephalitis, Rubella is known as German measles.

Administered subcutaneously at 9 months, For small children, the injection is administered in the anterolateral part of the thigh, In older children, it is given in the posterior triceps of the upper arm, Take the second dosage at 4 to 6 years.

After 12 months

Vaccine Name

Disease

Age and Dosage

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A affects the liver. The Hepatitis virus causes this disease, The disease is transmitted through the faecal-oral route because of poor sanitation, 1.5 million cases are reported each year, Around 85% of children below the age of 2 can be infected, It also causes jaundice in most cases

2 doses at 6 months apart are given to children who are one year and older.

What Are the Optional Vaccines for Babies in India?

The optional vaccines for babies in India are shown below!

Optional Vaccines

Name of Disease

Disease

Age and Dosage

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

The vaccine protects against invasive pneumococcal disease, It is a significant cause of death in children in India, WHO recommends the vaccine, The disease can occur in multiple organ systems causing pneumonia, sepsis, sinusitis, bronchitis, middle ear infection, meningitis, It is transmitted by direct contact with cough or sputum

It is administered after 2 months of after.

Influenza

This vaccination for babies in India is crucial as it protects against influenza.

It is administered every year for infants above 6 months.

Chickenpox Varicella

Varicella-zoster VSirus causes Chickenpox, The disease lasts 1-2 weeks, It is not very dangerous in childhood with rash and fever.

Administer one shot after one year.

Japanese Encephalitis

The Culex mosquito carries Flavivirus which causes this disease, High fever, malaise, headache, the rigidity of the neck are some common symptoms.

2 to 3 doses are taken after 18 months, especially in areas where pig farming is carried out.

Meningococcal Meningitis

A bacteria Neisseria meningitides cause it, 1.2 million cases occur every year, There are significant outbreaks in northern and northeastern states, This bacteria is transmitted through direct contact with droplets from the nose or throat and affects the upper respiratory tract, It primarily affects children, There is a sudden onset of headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, etc

There is a single intramuscular dose.

Cholera

Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal illness of the intestine, Vibrio cholera causes it.

From 2-year-old upwards, 2 oral doses are given of OCV, The vaccine has a short-term effect.

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Why Is It Important to Vaccinate Babies?

Frequently Asked Questions